1. Filter words
a. a. Usually unnecessary words such as “he saw” and “she heard” that add a layer or filter between the reader and the story, increasing the psychic distance
b. b. Brand name or logo printed on the mouth end of a cigarette
2. Endowed Object
a. An object or prop that may help to solve a mystery, define character, act as a talisman or source of power, reveal theme, or anchor a story in time and place.
b. Scarlett Johansson or Selma Hayek or …